GEN 1.5 Aircraft instruments, equipment and flight documents

1.5.1 General

1.5.1.1 All aircraft operating within the EMIRATES FIR shall carry sufficient instruments, equipment and flight documents to meet the applicable minimum requirements specified in Annex 6, Operation of Aircraft (Part I, II or III), UAE CAR (Part lV, V) and this section.
1.5.1.2 With reference to CAR PART IV, no foreign registered operator shall engage an aircraft in Commercial Air Transport operations unless the aircraft carries a valid insurance certificate meeting at minimum the UAE insurance requirements specified in DG DIRECTIVE 14‐2016 or any other rule in force. The requirements also applies to aircraft overflying the territory of the UAE.

1.5.2 RVSM

The requirements mentioned below are not applicable to State Aircraft.

Note: Definition of 'State' aircraft - For the purpose of EMIRATES FIR RVSM, only aircraft used in military, head of state or police services shall qualify as ‘State’ aircraft and are eligible to apply ‘M’ in Item 8 of the flight plan.

1.5.2.1 Introduction
1.5.2.1.1 Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum (RVSM) operations are mandated in the upper airspace of the EMIRATES FIR. RVSM is the generic term for a reduction in vertical separation from 2000 FT to 1000 FT that can be applied to approved operators of approved aircraft operating between FL 290 and FL 410 inclusive.
1.5.2.1.2 The requirements are published in the following ICAO documents:
  1. Regional Supplementary Procedures (Doc 7030 –MID/ASIA).
  2. Procedures for Air Navigation Services Air Traffic Management (PANS ATM Doc 4444).
1.5.2.2 Means of Compliance
1.5.2.2.1 Operators intending to conduct flights within the EMIRATES FIR RVSM airspace shall:
  1. Ensure that the aircraft is:
    1. Capable of:
      1. Indicating to the flight crew the flight level being flown;
      2. Automatically maintaining a selected flight level;
      3. Providing an alert to the flight crew when a deviation occurs from the selected flight level. The threshold for the alert shall not exceed ± 90 m (300 ft.); and
      4. Automatically reporting pressure-altitude;
    2. Equipped with serviceable ACAS II equipment as required by GEN 1.5.6
    3. Certified RNAV as required by GEN 1.5.5
  2. Be authorized by the State of the Operator for operation in RVSM airspace
  3. Include in its Operations manuals sections about:
    1. Equipment Requirements and Minima;
    2. Flight Planning;
    3. Pre-Flight, In-Flight and Post-Flight Procedures;
    4. Contingencies;
    5. TCAS/ACAS Alerts;
    6. R/T Phraseology;
    7. Height Monitoring Requirements.
  4. Demonstrate a vertical navigation performance in accordance with ICAO Annex 6 part 1 Appendix 4
  5. Ensure that pilots comply with phraseology associated with RVSM operations as required by UAE CAAP 69
1.5.2.3 Contingency procedures
1.5.2.3.1 Flight crews are to report to ATC as soon as practicable any event that may affect their ability to comply with the ATC clearance within RVSM airspace, e.g. severe turbulence, loss of thrust, loss of pressurisation, etc. If it is not possible to notify ATC immediately that a problem has occurred and obtain a new clearance, comply as accurately as possible with any procedures that may be specified for the airspace.
1.5.2.3.2 The following equipment failures must be reported to ATC:
  1. Loss of thrust on one or more engines necessitating descent;
  2. Loss of one or more altimetry systems;
  3. Failure of all automatic altitude control systems;
  4. Failure of any other equipment that could affect the ability of the aircraft to maintain flight as cleared.
1.5.2.4 Non-RVSM aircraft
1.5.2.4.1 When Non-RVSM aircraft are ready to enter RVSM airspace, the appropriate clearance is to be obtained from ATC. Note that due to the need to provide 2000 FT separation, controllers need to co-ordinate the flight with other RVSM approved aircraft. These flights therefore create extra workload and a slight delay in receiving such clearances should be anticipated. It would therefore be helpful if pilots can provide as much notice as possible prior to requesting flight levels above FL 280. However priority for allocation of levels will be in accordance with the criteria of making best use of available airspace as per ENR 1.9.2
1.5.2.4.2 Pilots are also reminded to include their Non-RVSM status (call sign NEGATIVE RVSM) in the initial call on any frequency within RVSM airspace and subsequent frequency changes, when requesting level changes pertaining to flight levels in RVSM airspace and in all read backs to flight level clearances pertaining to flight levels in RVSM airspace.

1.5.3 Carriage of radio

1.5.3.1 An aircraft shall be equipped with radio communication equipment capable of:
  1. Conducting two-way communication for aerodrome control purposes;
  2. Receiving meteorological information at any time during flight; and
  3. Conducting two-way communication at any time during flight with at least one aeronautical station and with such other aeronautical stations and on such frequencies as may be prescribed by the appropriate authority.

1.5.4 Carriage of SSR transponders

The requirements for the carriage of SSR transponders in the EMIRATES FIR are as follows:

1.5.4.1 Mandatory SSR transponders
  1. All IFR flights:

    Mode A, 4096 codes, and Mode C

  2. VFR flights in Class C airspace:

    Mode A, 4096 codes, and Mode C

  3. VFR flights in Class D airspace:

    Mode A, 4096 codes

  4. VFR flights operating at night in Class G airspace:

    Mode A, 4096 codes

  5. VFR flights operating in OMR58:

    Mode A, 4096 codes

  6. VFR flights operating in MBZ 2 - Jumeirah:

    Mode A, 4096 codes, and Mode C.

    Unless otherwise assigned squawk A2000

1.5.4.2 Aircraft equipped with SSR Transponder Mode S operating within the EMIRATES FIR:
  1. shall be in accordance with ICAO Doc 4444 chapter 8 paragraph 8.5.3.3
  2. having an aircraft identification feature, shall transmit the aircraft identification as specified in Item 7 of the ICAO flight plan
1.5.4.3 Aircraft capable of ADS-B operating within the EMIRATES FIR:
  1. shall be in accordance with ICAO Doc 4444 chapter 8 paragraph 8.5.4
  2. having an aircraft identification feature, shall transmit the aircraft identification as specified in Item 7 of the ICAO flight plan.
1.5.4.4 Transponder Failure
1.5.4.4.1 Cases in respect of transponder failure are to be dealt with in accordance with the SSR Operating Procedures as promulgated in ENR 1.6.2.1
1.5.4.5 Emergency or urgency
1.5.4.5.1 To indicate that it is in a state of emergency, or to transmit other urgent information, the aircraft may operate the emergency and/or urgency mode as follows:
  1. Code 7700 to indicate an emergency condition. This code should be selected as soon as is practicable after declaring an emergency situation, and having due regard for the overriding importance of controlling aircraft and containing the emergency. However, if the aircraft is already transmitting a discrete code and receiving an air traffic service, that code may be retained at the discretion of either the pilot or the controller;
  2. Code 7600 to indicate a radio failure;
  3. Code 7500 to indicate unlawful interference with the planned operation of a flight, unless circumstances warrant the use of Code 7700.
1.5.4.6 Mode S Transponder
With reference to CAR PART IV, no foreign registered operator of an aircraft fitted with ACAS II equipment shall undertake a flight unless equipped with a mode S transponder compliant with Annex 10, Volume IV within the EMIRATES FIR.

1.5.5 Area Navigation – RNAV or Performance Based Navigation (PBN)

1.5.5.1 Introduction
1.5.5.1.1 All aircraft above 5700 kg conducting commercial operations , other than State Aircraft*, and operating within EMIRATES Controlled Airspace shall be equipped with, as a minimum, RNAV equipment meeting RNAV 1 with GNSS in accordance with the requirements set out in ICAO Doc 9613 Performance-based Navigation (PBN) Manual, UAE CAR OPS 1.653 and AMC OPS 1.653. Foreign Registered Operators' requirements shall be in accordance with CAR PART IV. Any aircraft not in compliance with the above requirements will be suspended and/or grounded from operating in EMIRATES FIR.

* State aircraft are defined by ICAO Convention Article 3 as aircraft used in military and police services, however in EMIRATES FIR the Head of state aircraft are included.

1.5.5.1.2 Flight Planning shall be in accordance with ENR 1.10.1
1.5.5.1.3 It is the responsibility of the operator to ensure that the required system accuracy can be achieved when planning to operate in designated RNAV airspace. Where position information derived from GPS is the only input to the RNAV system it is incumbent upon operators to confirm that the necessary coverage from GPS is provided for the intended flight.
1.5.5.1.4 The mandate for the carriage of RNAV1 (GNSS) equipment applies to en-route ATS Routes, holding patterns and designated feeder routes (SIDs and STARs) in/out of CTAs.
1.5.5.2 Certification and Approval Requirements
1.5.5.2.1 To be eligible for RNAV1 (GNSS) operations, on-board navigation equipment shall be approved for the required navigation specification and the operator shall be granted with an operational approval from the State of Operator.
1.5.5.3 Aeronautical Navigation Database
1.5.5.3.1 Pilots must be able to determine that the on-board aeronautical database and software version in use for the navigation system is valid for the time of flight. The entire departure, arrival and approach procedure must be loadable by name from the navigation database. Foreign Registered Operators' requirements shall be in accordance with CAR PART IV.
1.5.5.3.2 Aircraft not in compliance with GEN-1.5.5.3.1 will not be permitted to enter EMIRATES FIR.
1.5.5.3.3 For arriving aircraft, a grace period of 16 hours will be applied after every new AIRAC cycle to allow operators to update their on-board aeronautical database. Once the 16 hours grace period has expired, aircraft shall not be permitted to operate in RNAV airspace with invalid aeronautical database.
1.5.5.3.4 Manually entered and overlay procedures shall not be used as the primary reference on any approach, at any time.
1.5.5.4 Contingency and Exemption
1.5.5.4.1 Contingency Procedures
  1. Failure of RNAV1 (GNSS) capability before Departure - In case of failure or degradation of the RNAV1 (GNSS) system which is detected before departure from an aerodrome where it is not practicable to repair, the aircraft is allowed to depart under RNAV5 (to be annotated on the FDE (Flight Data Entry) and radar to monitor), and commercial flights will not be permitted back to EMIRATES FIR until fully equipped with required system (RNAV1 with GNSS). Refer to GEN-1.5.5.4.2
  2. Flight Plan Procedures - Operators of such aircraft, where a failure or degradation is detected before departure, shall not insert the designators 'S' or 'R' in Item 10 of the flight plan. Since such flights require special handling by ATC in coordination with GCAA FOA, Item 18 of the flight plan shall contain RMK/RNAVINOP. Subsequently, for a flight for which a flight plan has been submitted, the old flight plan shall be cancelled and a new one filed.

    If the letter R is used, the Performance-based Navigation levels that can be met are specified in Item 18 following the indicator PBN/. Guidance material on the application of Performance-based navigation to a specific route segment, route or area is contained in the Performance-based Navigation (PBN) Manual (Doc 9613).

  3. Failure of RNAV1 (GNSS) capability whilst Airborne - If, as a result of failure of the RNAV1 (GNSS) system or degradation of it below RNAV1 (GNSS), an aircraft is unable to enter mandated RNAV airspace or continue operations in accordance with the existing ATC clearance, a revised clearance shall be obtained from the ATC. Subsequent ATC action in respect of that aircraft will be dependent upon the nature of the reported failure and the overall traffic situation. Continued operation with the current ATC clearance may be possible in many situations. When this cannot be achieved, a revised clearance may be required to revert to navigation using conventional aids. ATC may also provide the aircraft with radar vectors until the aircraft is capable of resuming its own navigation.
  4. Phraseology - Whenever initial contact on an ATC frequency is established the pilot shall include the phrase 'UNABLE RNAV DUE EQUIPMENT' immediately after the aircraft callsign.

Note: The above requirements do not apply in military restricted airspace.

Note: The term ATS route is used to variously include airway, upper airway and arrival / departure routes.

1.5.5.4.2 Navigation Equipment Exemption
1.5.5.4.2.1 No exemption, other than for State Aircraft and for operators holding diplomatic clearance, from these requirements will be granted. In very special circumstances, relaxation of the requirements, for a single flight, may be approved by the GCAA FOA where not more than one item of equipment is unserviceable when the aircraft is about to begin a flight, if the pilot in command is satisfied that:
  1. It is not reasonably practicable for the repair or replacement of that item to be carried out before the beginning of the flight.
  2. The aircraft has not made more than one flight since the item was last serviceable; and
  3. The flight can be made safely and in accordance with any relevant requirements of the appropriate ATC Unit, taking into account the latest information available as to the route and aerodrome to be used (including any planned diversion) and the weather conditions likely to be encountered.
1.5.5.5 RNAV SID, STAR and Approach Procedures
1.5.5.5.1 All aircraft, operating within CTAs inside the EMIRATES FIR, shall be equipped with, as a minimum, RNAV equipment meeting RNAV1 (GNSS) in accordance with the requirements set out in ICAO Doc 9613 Performance Based Navigation (PBN), UAE CAR OPS 1.653 and AMC OPS 1.653.
1.5.5.5.2 Procedures and charts for approved RNAV1 SID/STAR and RNAV (GNSS) Approaches are included in the appropriate AD section of the AIP.
1.5.5.5.3 Aircraft Navigation System
1.5.5.5.3.1 The aircraft navigation system shall include at least one GPS receiver and must be approved to conduct:
  1. RNAV (GNSS) Approaches or;
  2. Approaches with RNP 0.3 or RNP-AR.

Note: The terminology used in Aircraft Flight Manuals may vary between aircraft types.

1.5.5.5.3.2 All approved installations must have the appropriate approval for RNAV (GNSS) Approach operations entered in the Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM), Operation Specification or equivalent. The navigation system shall as minimum comply with the following specifications:
  1. UAE based carriers must comply with UAE CAAP 52.
  2. Other carriers must comply with specification required by TSO-C 145/146/196
1.5.5.5.3.3 Such performance may be achieved by a system only based on GNSS having at least one GPS receiver or
1.5.5.5.3.4 By a multi-sensor system (eg, Flight Management System) having at least one GPS receiver.
1.5.5.5.4 Contingency
1.5.5.5.4.1 RAIM availability prediction software does not guarantee the service; they are tools to assess the expected capability to meet the required navigation performance. Due to failure of some GNSS elements, operators must be aware that RAIM, or GPS navigation altogether, may be lost while airborne which may require reversion to an alternative means of navigation. Therefore, pilots should assess their capability to navigate (potentially to an alternate destination) in case of failure of GPS navigation.
1.5.5.5.5 Loss of Communications
1.5.5.5.5.1 In the event of communications failure, the pilot should continue with the RNAV (GNSS) procedure in accordance with published loss of communication procedures in ENR 1.6.1.3
1.5.5.5.5.2 The operator shall amend the ATC flight plan in coordination with ATC in case of communication, navigation or surveillance system or equipment failure and will be subjected to ATC Units’ approval.

1.5.6 Carriage of Airborne Collision Avoidance System - ACAS II

1.5.6.1 Commercial Air Transport
1.5.6.1.1 All turbine engine aircraft of a maximum certificated take-off mass in excess of 5700 kg or authorised to carry more than 19 passengers shall be equipped with an airborne collision avoidance system (ACAS II).
1.5.6.1.2 With reference to CAR PART IV, no Foreign Operator shall undertake a flight with a turbine engine aircraft involved in Commercial Air Transport operations of a maximum certificated take‐off mass in excess of 5,700 kg or with MAPSC more than 19 passengers unless the aircraft is fitted with ACAS II equipment.
1.5.6.2 General Aviation (GA)
1.5.6.2.1 All turbine engine aircraft of a maximum certificated take-off mass in excess of 15000 kg or authorised to carry more than 30 passengers, for which the individual airworthiness certificate is first issued after 1 January 2007, shall be equipped with an airborne collision avoidance system (ACAS II).
1.5.6.2.2 With reference to CAR PART IV, no Foreign Operator shall undertake a flight with a turbine engine aircraft involved in non‐Commercial Air Transport operations of a maximum certificated take‐off mass in excess of 15,000 kg or with MAPSC more than 30 passengers unless the aircraft is fitted with ACAS II equipment.
1.5.6.3 Operators are advised that aircraft covered by this requirement shall carry ACAS II authorisation on-board, available for inspection by GCAA officials.
1.5.6.5 Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) II is accepted as a suitable ACAS system provided its installation is certificated by the State of Registry, and that its operation by flight crew is in accordance with instructions for the use of this equipment specified in their company's operations manual.
1.5.6.6 With reference to CAR PART IV, the ACAS II equipment of a foreign registered aircraft shall be fitted with software version 7.1 with mode S transponder compliant with Annex 10, Volume IV within the EMIRATES FIR.

The GCAA may authorise operation with TCAS version 7.0. An operator to be authorised to operate with TCAS version 7.0 instead of 7.1 should provide the GCAA with mitigation measures established to address the design deficiencies of TCAS version 7.0 and rectified in TCAS version 7.1 along with an action plan to achieve compliance TCAS Version 7.1.

1.5.6.7 General flight procedures relating to the operation of ACAS II equipment in the EMIRATES FIR and UIR are detailed at ENR 1.6.3. This includes operation of aircraft when ACAS II is unserviceable.
1.5.6.8 Exemptions
1.5.6.8.1 No exemption will be granted for aircraft required to be equipped with serviceable ACAS II.
1.5.6.8.2 However, to cater for aircraft that are away from their maintenance base, aircraft may be dispatched with an unserviceable ACAS II equipment if authorised by their State of Registry (e.g. approved MEL or equivalent) and if acceptable to the ATC unit. Aircraft operating with unserviceable ACAS II under this exemption shall indicate the unserviceability in Item 18 of the flight plan (Other information).
1.5.6.8.3 ATC may exempt from the requirements of the carriage of ACAS II for flights entering the EMIRATES FIR only if the purpose is for maintenance and engineering at facilities located within the EMIRATES FIR or transiting the EMIRATES FIR. Such aircraft shall insert “RMK/Maintenance flight - ACAS II exemption approved” in Item 18 of the flight plan (Other information). Flights operated under the provisions of these exemptions must be non-revenue flights.
1.5.6.8.4 The following conditions apply:
  1. The aircraft navigation system shall be equipped with at least one GPS receiver
  2. Where agreed Regulations and Procedures exist, these shall be maintained.
  3. An ICAO compliant altitude reporting transponder must be fitted and serviceable before departure.
  4. An ACAS II exemption approval will be valid for a 3-day period from estimated departure date, and solely for the purpose for which it has been issued. If the flight is subsequently delayed beyond the maximum 3-day exemption period a fresh application must be submitted; this may take a further 3 working days to process.
  5. Conditions may be imposed by one or more States: such as operating within certain restrictive hours, or via specific routes, or at stated flight levels (for safety reasons or otherwise).
  6. The flight must be conducted along the most direct (or permissible) route to the delivery or maintenance destination airport.
1.5.6.8.7 Aircraft operators are to ensure compliance with the above conditions and that the exempted flight is in accordance with the operator's originally stated intentions, and that it must comply with any conditions laid down by the GCAA and subsequently by the ATC authorities.
1.5.6.8.8 Owners and operators of aircraft intending to operate under the provisions of these exemptions must seek approval for flights through the airspace of other ATC units from the appropriate State authorities.
1.5.6.8.9 Further information, advice and exemptions concerning the carriage and operation of ACAS II equipment in the EMIRATES FIR by foreign operators can be obtained by sending an exemptions request to:

1.5.7 Use of ICAO three letter operator designators and / or callsigns

1.5.7.1 The use of another operator´s three letter operator designator and / or call sign by non-scheduled operators is not permitted without the written authorisation of both the State of Registry and the State of Operator. Such authorisation shall be specific to the operation. Foreign Registered Operators' requirements shall be in accordance with CAR PART IV.
1.5.7.2 Foreign operators shall register the authorisation of any such arrangement with Foreign operators section of the GCAA on the above email and the local airport authority.
1.5.7.3 In cases where an operator has been authorised to use another operator's call sign other than the one they have used to enter EMIRATES FIR, the original operator's three letter code must be included in Item 18 of the flight plan.

1.5.8 Equipment requirements

1.5.8.1 Emergency locator transmitter (ELT)
1.5.8.1.1 An ELT may be automatically activated by impact or be manually activated and may be any of the following:
  • Automatic fixed ELT
  • Automatic portable ELT
  • Automatic deployable ELT
  • Survival ELT
1.5.8.1.2 All aircraft shall be equipped with an ELT as required by applicable part of ICAO Annex 6 and ICAO Annex 10, Volume III.
1.5.8.2 Cockpit voice recorder (CVR) and cockpit audio recording system (CARS)
1.5.8.2.1 The CVR and CARS shall start to record prior to the aircraft moving under its own power and record continuously until the termination of the flight when the aircraft is no longer capable of moving under its own power. In addition, depending on the availability of electrical power, the CVR and CARS shall start to record as early as possible during the cockpit checks prior to engine start at the beginning of the flight until the cockpit checks immediately following engine shutdown at the end of the flight. All aircraft shall be equipped with a CVR and CARS as required by applicable part of ICAO Annex 6.
1.5.8.3 Flight data recorder (FDR)
1.5.8.3.1 The FDR shall start to record prior to the aircraft moving under its own power and record continuously until the termination of the flight when the aircraft is no longer capable of moving under its own power. All aircraft shall be equipped with a FDR as required by applicable part of ICAO Annex 6.
1.5.8.4 Ground Proximity Warning System
1.5.8.4.1 A ground proximity warning system automatically provides a timely and distinctive warning to the flight crew when the aircraft is in potentially hazardous proximity to the earth’s surface. All aircraft shall be equipped with a GPWS as required by applicable part of ICAO Annex 6.
1.5.8.5 Electronic navigation data management
1.5.8.5.1 An operator shall not employ electronic navigation data products unless the State of the Operator has approved the operator’s procedures for ensuring that the process applied and the products delivered have met acceptable standards of integrity and that the products are compatible with the intended function of the equipment that will use them. The State of the Operator shall ensure that the operator continues to monitor both process and products.
1.5.8.5.2 An operator shall implement procedures that ensure the timely distribution and insertion of current and unaltered electronic navigation data to all aircraft that require it.